Sports Injuries: Types, Diagnosis, Treatment
Professional sports is often associated with the risk of injury. Many sports are considered to be extremely traumatic. Among them are football, rugby, hockey, basketball, boxing, wrestling and other martial arts. Despite this, sport has not lost its popularity, thus, medicine tirelessly stands to guard the health of athletes, developing new methods of diagnosis, treatment and prevention of sports injuries.
Types of sports injuries
Sports injuries are damages of the varying degrees of complexity that person usually receives during intense exercise. Of course, you can get a sports injury during the morning exercise as well, but more often such injuries occur during professional training.
Sports injuries are divided into:
- Primary injury.
- Injuries that were caused by the excessive load.
- Repeated trauma.
Regardless of the age, the primary injury may be obtained from acute damage. For example: eye injuries, sprains, bruises, muscle grip, broken bones, head injuries, fractures of the skull, concussion, spinal injuries or back traumas. Most sports injuries occur because of improper compliance with safety regulations, the use of low-quality equipment or complete lack it.
In accordance with severity, sports injuries are devided into:
- Severe injuries, that is, those that cause severe disturbance of health. Typically, these injuries require hospitalization for over thirty days.
- Moderate injuries, that include those of medium difficulty. They lead to a marked deterioration of health and hospitalization for a period of ten to thirty days. This type of injuries include wounds and injuries that require treatment in trauma or orthopedic malfunctions.
- Mild injuries, which do not require hospital treatment and do not violate the general disability. These injuries include wounds of a superficial nature, scrapes, abrasions, bruises, sprains and others.
Most common sports injuries are:
- Dislocations of joints of varying difficulty.
- Deformation or stretching of muscles.
- Bone fractures, most often the bones of the extremities.
- Fractures of the spine.
- Tendon rupture.
- Torn ligaments.
Injuries during sports can be acute or chronic. Acute injuries are characterized by sudden occurrence, such as the broken arm or leg during the fall. Chronic injuries are formed during a long time constant loads or excessive loads. For example, tendinosis that is the emergence of pain in the muscles and tendons that have long been subjected to considerable stress.
Diagnosis of sports injuries
Diagnosis of trauma is often made on the basis of symptoms, despite the fact that, depending on the place of origin, damage manifestations may differ significantly.
The most common symptoms of acute sports injuries include:
- Sudden severe pain.
- Inability to perform the movement of the limbs.
- Visible deformation, for example, an offset joint.
- The presence of bleeding.
- Increased body temperature.
- Loss of consciousness.
Chronic sports injuries can manifest as:
- The presence or aching dull pain even during the state of rest .
- The occurrence of pain during exercise .
- The occurrence of pain during palpation.
If the above listed symptoms occurred, you must go to the clinic , where the doctor will conduct additional diagnostic tests, such as :
- Computed tomography.
- Laparoscopy and others.
Treatment of sports injuries
Depending on the type of injury and its severity, the following treatments can be prescribed:
- Surgery (in severe conditions or complex fractures).
- Electrical stimulation is used to reduce pain and stimulate regeneration and has the impact of a light electric shock.
- Cryotherapy reduces puffiness and removes manifestation of pain in the area of injury. It can be used during the first forty-eight hours after injury.
- Thermotherapy helps increase blood flow to the site of injury and contributes to healing.
- Ultrasound improves regeneration in the deeper tissues.
- Imbolization using tires, ie immobilization of the limb for a period until fracture will heal.
- Chiropractic and massage improve blood circulation, make muscles relax, improve joint mobility, relieve pain .
- Hydrotherapy is a massage with water jets that relieves spasms, improves blood circulation, stimulates the regenerative processes.
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