Stenosis of the larynx: Causes, Symptoms and Treatment
Stenosis of the larynx can be acute or chronic. Manifestation of the disease occurs in the form of short-term narrowing of the larynx, which leads to disruption of oxygen in the respiratory tract. Symptoms of stenosis depends on the degree of narrowing of the gap voice.
Acute stenosis develops rapidly, causing the protective mechanisms have not time to operate. Consequently, oxygen deficiency, along with excess carbon dioxide in the blood leads to serious disorders of vital organs and systems until their paralysis and death of the patient. Acute stenosis quickly treatable and reversible process. However, if after the rescue of the patient by means of a tracheostomy cause of stenosis is not removable, the disease becomes chronic. Chronic stenosis increases gradually and can lead to the manifestation of acute stenosis.
Causes of acute laryngeal stenosis
Stenosis of the larynx is not a separate disease. This set of symptoms that occurs as a complication of various pathological conditions. The cause may be local and general factors.
Common causes include infections often: scarlet fever, malaria, measles, typhus and typhoid fever, tuberculosis, syphilis and others.
Local factors of laryngeal stenosis include: mechanical and chemical injury of the larynx, foreign bodies, medical procedures, gunshot wounds, congenital laryngeal inflammation of the larynx and trachea (tonsillitis, tracheitis, laryngitis). The causes include diseases and benign tumors, bilateral paresis and laryngeal cancer, lesions adjacent to the larynx bodies.
Symptoms of acute laryngeal stenosis
Manifested acute laryngeal stenosis hoarse or husky voice, shortness of breath, with which it is difficult to breathe, noisy breathing, pale face, restless behavior of the patient.
Treatment of acute laryngeal stenosis
The choice of therapeutic interventions depends on to the degree of symptoms and their causes. Purpose: urgent reduction and elimination of symptoms of respiratory distress and asphyxiation.
Acute stenosis subject to medical treatment in a hospital. Usually with antibiotics and anti-inflammatory drugs. In the presence of edema of the larynx used corticosteroids and antihistamines decongestant action.
It is important to ensure patient enough fresh, humidified air and limit physical activity. In case of acute decompensated stenosis of the larynx is used to provide emergency tracheostomy patient's breathing. However, this method of artificial respiration can be used for no longer than three days.
Multiple diseases, provoking acute stenosis of the larynx, belong to different branches of medicine. Thus, to diagnose and to stop stenosis may different doctors: resuscitation, otolaryngologist, allergist, an oncologist, pulmonologist, neurologist.