Main Factors of Emergency Surgery
Emergency surgery is aimed at an urgent surgical treatment conditions of the person threatening the life. Treatment is carried out at any time and is not dependent on weekends, holidays. If elective surgery can be planned ahead, then no emergency. Work of the medical staff should have a clear tactic to avoid wasting precious time on the diagnostic and organizational activities. The patient should be given urgent help for four hours after admission. Preoperative preparation should be intense, hence the importance of working out a common treatment strategy.
Emergency Surgery Objective
Initially it is important to define the diagnosis, determine the degree of surgical risk, scope and duration of preoperative preparation. It is important to choose the right method of anesthesia. Local anesthesia is used, for example, during not strangulated hernia and uncomplicated acute appendicitis, as well as in young patients and non-overweight. In a complicated, acute course of the disease requires the use of general anesthesia.
Providing immediate emergency assistance should involve only the most experienced surgeons with rich experience. This does not mean that young doctors - surgeons should not participate in activities for emergency assistance. However, their actions should be monitored by more experienced doctors. Errors in the treatment of patients with acute disease state are not allowed. Continuous improvement of theoretical knowledge of surgical practice (technology), the analysis allows to improve their work each time and reduce the risk of repeating mistakes.
Urgent operations can be performed in any place if there is time for the transportation. Postoperative period involves finding a patient with complications of the disease or severe concomitant diseases in intensive care units. Length of stay in the hospital set individually by the attending physician. Change dressings should be conducted on the second and third day after surgery to see the state and wound healing process. This approach allows us to diagnose the presence of complications from the wound. Patients with purulent complications should be mandatory defined in special compartments or separate wards. For them, special dressings are removed and carried out other activities to prevent the spread and prevention of purulent surgical infections. An important prerequisite for the effective treatment of patients with acute abdominal surgical disease is the use of antibiotics and antiseptics.
Emergency Surgery Subsections
Emergency surgery is divided into: emergency and urgent. Emergency - this is the assistance that should be done no later than 2 hours after a diagnosis. Preparing for surgery should be organized in the shortest time. Emergency surgery is required with such diseases: purulent inflammation in the abdomen (peritonitis), acute appendicitis, multiple penetrating injuries, all kinds of internal bleeding. Damage to internal organs, strangulated hernia and others.
Urgent surgery has more time to prepare than an emergency. Emergency surgery is required in the following cases: malignant tumors, acute gallbladder inflammation, purulent processes, various forms of gangrene, prosthetic vascular organ transplantation.
Emergency surgery is divided in places of care. Treatment is carried out in an outpatient surgery clinic or outpatient specialized surgical team.
With carefully thought and practitioned tactics emergency surgery significantly reduces mortality and the risk of severe complications. Each surgeon must possess the technique to perform emergency surgery.