Anaphylaxis: Causes, Symptoms and Treatment
Anaphylaxis is an acute allergic reaction to the repeated contact with the allergen. It is an inadequate reaction of the body to the allergen. This condition is dangerous to human life, as at an expressed pressure drop there may be choking.
Anaphylaxis: an overview
This kind of severe allergic reaction may be faced by people at any age. This can happen when a new antibiotic is taken, anesthesia in the dental office is applied, when a wasp stings you at walk or in the restaurant when tasting exotic dishes. The main difference between a state of shock and the usual allergy is the severity of its symptoms. However, this does not mean that every state of shock is fatal. With timely and adequate medical care, most of allergic reactions are removed safely. However, people who have had an anaphylactic shock, should always carry a medical certificate, where the allergen he or she had such a reaction on is indicated. Also, the person needs to carry a syringe with epinephrine in case shock will repeat.
Symptoms of anaphylactic shock are characterized by the rapid development of the reaction. Symptoms appear after a few seconds or minutes after the contact with the allergen.
- Pruritus, urticaria.
- Sore throat, cough.
- Lowering blood pressure.
- Headache, sensation of heat, noise in the ears.
- Chest pain, shortness of breath.
- Anxiety, excitement, or depression, lethargy.
- Convulsions, involuntary urination.
- The occurrence of the fear of death.
- Spasm of the upper respiratory tract, swelling of the mucous membrane, causing asthma, asthma attack.
- Myocardial infarction or acute myocarditis.
Anaphylaxis: First Aid
At the slightest suspicion of shock one should immediately call an ambulance. While waiting for the doctor, the intake of the allergen into organism should be stopped if possible. If anaphylactic shock was caused due to an insect bite, then above the bite there should be a tourniquet. The person should be to be laid flat on his back and tilt his or her head sideways. Thus, it is possible to prevent asphyxia (suffocation) from vomit or tongue fallback. Next, you need to ensure the flow of oxygen is sufficient: lift the window, take cloths off the chest, neck and abdomen from clothing.
Upon arrival, the doctors first actions will be aimed at preventing the allergen from reaching general circulation. For this reason, epinephrine solution is administrated in person's blood and he or she needs to be provided with fresh air by means of oxygen cushion. Next antiallergic medicines are administrated into the blood. Further treatment of shock is aimed at normalization of the respiratory and cardiovascular activity, decrease in the permeability of the walls of blood vessels, prevention of the development of complications in internal organs.