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​Hemorrhoids: Causes, Symptoms and Methods of Diagnosing

Hemorrhoids - it's painful, swollen veins in the lower rectum or anus. Hemorrhoids are very common, especially during pregnancy and after childbirth. This is the result of increased tone in the veins of the anus, which is triggered by:

  • constipation,
  • a sedentary lifestyle,
  • anal infections,
  • other diseases, such as infections of the gastrointestinal tract.

Hemorrhoids: Causes, Symptoms and Methods of Diagnosing

Hemorrhoid can be internal and external:

  • Internal hemorrhoids only appears inside the anus, at the beginning of the rectum,
  • External hemorrhoids appear in the anus and can be located outside the anus.

Hemorrhoid Symptoms

Hemorrhoids usually triggers:

  • anal itching,
  • pain in the anus when sitting,
  • bright red blood in stool.

Methods of diagnosis

Doctor can diagnose hemorrhoids by examining the rectal area. If necessary, a test that can help diagnose the problem can be done:

  • Finger test of the rectum, conducted through the lumen of the rectum - a very valuable diagnostic technique. Only after such a study coloproctologist recommends anoscopy and sigmoidoscopy.
  • Fecal blood test - to identify the "hidden" blood invisible with microscopic study. Analysis makes it possible to recognize the presence of any bleeding from digestive tract.
  • Anoscopy - instrumental examination of the rectum.
  • Sigmoidoscopy


Study closing apparatus of the rectum. To be able to judge the hold function, proctologist has such methods, such as inspection, digital examination of the anal canal and anal reflex study. Objective assessment of sphincter is made through sphincterometry.

  1. Research probe. Applies to study the characteristics of fistula rectum. For this purpose, use a metal probe with a thickening at the end of the round - bellied probe. Investigation probe, if you found a fistula - is necessary.
  2. Sample dye. Such research is necessary for the detection and diagnosis of acute and chronic suppurative diseases of the rectum, sacrococcygeal region, and also provides necessary information for coloproctologist for a surgery.
  3. Biopsy. A biopsy of the colon helps implement histomorphological study. There are methods for obtaining mucosal fragments - using blind aspiration biopsy also targeted biopsy, which is done by endoscopy. Indications for biopsy of these two methods differ.
  4. X-ray of the colon (barium enema) - X-ray researches retrograde introduction into the intestine radiopaque preparation.
  5. Colonoscopy (colonofibroscopy) - technique of endoscopic diagnosis of diseases of the colon. This is a very important method for diagnosis of diseases of the colon. Performed using a colonoscope, a special apparatus.
  6. Ultrasound. Nowadays,sonography is a valuable method of diagnosis the colorectal cancer to evaluate it’s character, give information about the presence of metastases in the liver and lymph nodes. Endorectal ultrasound probe with colonoscopy enhances the diagnostic objective.
  7. DNA Diagnostics. DNA diagnosis to tumor predisposition. Growth of polyps in the colon causing trouble. Furthermore, a high level of polyposis indicates increased risk of colon cancer. Cancer is possible without polyposis. 

See also:

1 comment
Hello, thanks for writing this useful article. Have you ever heard about the THD Method to treat hemorrhoids? I was surfing the Web to look for information but there is not much about it. My proctologue suggested me this technique to treat my problem and I'd like to know more before deciding. Any help? Thanks

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