Anal Fissure: Causes, Symptoms and Diagnosis
Anal fissure is a gap, ulcer or wound between the dentate line and a bottom edge part of the anus that causes pain. They usually do not lead to complications.
Basically anal fissures healed home for a couple of days or weeks. If it takes more than 6 weeks of treatment, it is a chronic disease. Perhaps chronic process, you will have to take certain medications. Surgery can be necessary for the cracks that are not cured by medicines.
They can occur in all ages. They are common for both sexes. Sometimes it develops simultaneously with hemorrhoids.
What Causes It
They are caused by traumas (injuries) of the anal canal.
Injuries can occur when:
- you have frequent stools, diarrhea,
- foreign body in the stool that can scratch the anal canal;
- after childbirth;
- cracks can also be caused by endoscopic examination, foreign bodies, or anal sex.
Because many people suffer from constipation or diarrhea, that do not lead to fissures, many believe that there is another reason for this disease. Patients overly straining sphincter that control the anus during defecation. External circle is under your conscious control. But the internal one cannot be controlled. This muscle is constantly under pressure or stress. Crack may increase if the pressure on the internal sphincter becomes too large, which could result in spasm and reduced blood flow to the anus. This condition, of course, is not conducive to healing.
This also may be due to Crohn's disease, or an indicator of intestinal diseases, however, very often in such cases appears bloody diarrhea, stomach cramps, chills, dramatic weight loss, or fistulas near the anus.
It causes a sharp pain during the defecation. Pain, which can be very strong, lasts for several hours. Cracks may itch and produce a yellowish discharge. You can see a small blood spot on the toilet paper, and the blood is not connected to the chair.
If blood is inseparable from the chair, it could be inflammatory disease. In this case immediately visit the doctor. Sometimes an anal fissure can be painless - a wound that does not heal and bleeds periodically, but does not cause any other symptoms.
Most physicians see anal fissure at the examination.
Doctor examines the anus using a gloved finger (finger rectal examination) or tool (anoscopy). If the crack is extremely painful, the doctor usually waits until the pain calms down to spend a rectal examination or survey using anoscope to identify the causes that contribute to the appearance of cracks. Anesthesia is done if needed immediate investigation. Anoscopy includes using an optical system with the illumination of the affected area of the anal canal.
If you have one or more fractures in the anus or a crack where it normally does not occur then it may be a symptom of an inflammatory bowel disease, syphilis, weakened immune system , tuberculosis, HIV infection, or cancer of the anal canal. Most fractures occur along the midline of the anus - above or below. The doctor may take a small piece of the anus tissue to clarify the chronic nature of the fracture.