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Kidney Failure Among Newborns

Renal failure among newborns, fortunately, is not the most common disease, but, nevertheless, such cases occur in medical pactice. Symptoms of kidney disease among infants are similar to the ones that occur among older children, but are mostly caused by extrarenal causes.

Kidney Failure Among Newborns

Types of kidney disease of newborns

Modern medicine differentiates three types of kidney diseases of the newborns:

  1. Congenital and hereditary diseases. These include: renal dysplasia, polycystic kidney disease, hydronephrosis, Finnish type congenital nephrotic syndrome, a doubling of the kidneys and others.
  2. Acquired renal disease. These include: urinary tract infections, interstitial nephritis, renal vascular thrombosis.
  3. Ischemic nephropathy. This is a disease with the transient disruption of the kidney, which develops in the renal tissue ischemia.

Symptoms of kidney disease of newborns

  • Swelling, which mainly occurs due to hemolytic disease of the newborn, hypothermia, intrauterine infection, hypothyroidism, chromosome abnormalities, mother's diabetes, kidney disease. So-called "Kidney swelling" can be diagnosed on the following criteria: it is usually combined with bright laboratory abnormalities, such as proteinuria, hypercholesterolemia, hypoproteinemia. In addition, this type of edema is localized mostly on the extremities, face and back, and swelling is soft to the touch.
  • Oliguria may develop if the body does not receive enough fluids, as well as because of vomiting, cardiovascular disease, diarrhea, inflammatory processes.
  • Proteinuria accompanies toxicosis syndrome with sepsis, dehydration, pneumonia and intrauterine infection.
  • Hematuria occurs because of acute circulatory disorders of kidneys, such as haemorrhagic diathesis, hypoxia, infection of the urinary tract .
  • Granular cylinders are usually revealed during renal failure, whereas, hyaline cylinders may be found in perfectly healthy child's body.

Acute renal failure in newborns

Most often, this pathology is the result of complications of kidney disease, when the ischemia of renal tissue occurs. The first symptom of acute renal failure is the sudden rise of creatinine concentration in the blood. Among infants acute renal failure usually occurs due to extrarenal causes, and, especially, severe hypoxia. Later, acute renal failure may develop because of inflamation processes of the urinary system, intrauterine infection, sepsis and as a result of processes in organic kidney tissue. Manifestation of acute renal failure among newborns is the same as among older children and is followed by such symtoms as olirugiya, edema, azotemia, hyperkalemia, acidosis.

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