Cyanotic Heart Defects: Anatomical Features
Cyanotic heart defects are those defects, which occur when a significant amount of venous blood gets into the systemic circulation, as a result, it accumulates in tissues and organs, giving them some special lividity.
Types and specialties of cyanotic heart defects
There are several types of cyanotic heart defects, each of which is charachterised by certain anatomical features.
This heart defect is the most common one, and covers about 15% of all cases of congenital heart disease. There are at least three types of the disease:
- Trilogy of Fallot includes atrial septal defect, pulmonary stenosis, hypertrophy that is an increasement of the wall of the right ventricle.
- Tetralogy of Fallot consists of atrial septal defect, pulmonary artery stenosis, aortic abnormality location, hypertrophy of the walls of the right ventricle.
- Pentad of Fallot includes atrial septal defect, pulmonary stenosis, aortic abnormality location, right ventricular wall hypertrophy, ventricular septal defect.
The severity of symptoms can vary, and the violation of blood flow occurs due to the fact that the venous blood from the right ventricle comes in the the pulmonary artery in the insufficient amounts, since the enterance is too narrow entrance. As a result, there occurs right ventricular hypertrophy, and a significant portion of blood (70%) falls into the left atrium and into the systemic circulation. Therfore, the cyanosis occurs.
This defect is treaded with surgery alone.
Tricuspid atresia (CCA)
The disease accounts for up to 5.3 % of all cases of congenital heart disease (CHD). The specialty of the deffect is that there is no connection between the right atrium and ventricle. To compensate for the circulation usually there is little communication between the atria in the form of a small hole in the atrial septum so easily fall into the blood detours. This good is considered serious, as the right atrium completely excluded from the cycle of circulation, the lungs and gets enough blood.
Pathology manifested immediately after birth in the form of a pronounced cyanosis. If the child does not receive surgical treatment, death occurs very quickly.
The anomalous pulmonary venous confluence
Congenital malformation of the heart, in which part of the pulmonary veins, or they fall into the hollow vein going to the right atrium, and not the left atrium. It makes a disease about 4% of all CHD. When this occurs vice poor circulation due to the fact that the arterial blood is full of light enters the right atrium, where it is mixing with the venous.
Manifested flaw in the first minutes of life in the form of increasing cyanosis, while, over the heart can listen pathological noise, there is shortness of breath, tachycardia, edema. To save the life of a child immediately after birth is carried out palliative surgery.
Transposition of the great vessels (TMS)
TMS is one of the most serious defects, which occurs in 5-6% of cases of CHD. This defect, in which there is no communication between the large and small circulation. In other words, the pulmonary artery and the aorta are reversed. This defect is not compatible with life, so it is necessary to operate immediately after birth.
Truncus arteriosus (SLA)
This defect is characterized by severe anomaly when moving away from the heart of a common vessel (trunkus) instead of the pulmonary artery and the aorta, thus going the bloodstream pulmonary blood total. The disease occurs in 2-3% of all CHD. This flaw is considered severe because of the fact that there is a constant mixing of blood. Children with this disease is lagging behind in development, manifested dyspnea, cyanosis, poor circulation. If you do not use the surgical correction, about 75% of children die within a few days after birth.
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