Critical Heart Defects Among Newborns
Congenital heart diseases occupy approximately a third part out of all developmental abnormalities of newborns. Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the greatest danger for a child's life, so about thirty percent of babies affected by the disease die before the month and the quarter of the babies die during the first year of life.
Due to the advances in modern cardiac surgery, many CHD are amenable to correction if a newborn is operated in time. Moreover, in most cases, children who underwent heart surgery, live a full life without any restrictions.
The causes of congenital heart disease
The heart disease is maily associated with some abnormal processes during fetal development between the second eighth weeks. The main adverse factors include:
- Infections during pregnancy, such as rubella, herpes, influenza.
- Drinking alcohol by future mother in the first trimester.
- Genetic factors.
- The use of certain medications during pregnancy.
- Diseases of the endocrine system of the mother.
- The birth of a child after 40 years.
Types of critical heart defects among newborns
There are several dozens of types of congenital heart defects, and combinations thereof. It is extremely important to determine the presence of heart disease in a child during the first hours of life, to prevent possible emergency conditions. Thus, the most common types of CHD include:
1.Critical states, which depend on the fetal communications.These include a large group of complex defects, hemodynamics that are totally dependent on the state and functions of patent foramen ovale and ductus arantsieva. In case of their natural close, there is a critical situation, which can manifest itself as a progressive syndrome of arterial hypoxemia or in the form of acute heart failure.
This group is divided into sub-groups:
- The so-called duktus dependent vices, ie the life without the functioning of arterial ductu is not possible . Duktus-dependent circulation can be divided into the pulmonary or systemic ones, depending on the circulation, which suffers when the duc closest. This subgroup includes the following diseases: pulmonary atresia, transposition of the great arteries, pulmonary critical stenosis, break of aorta, hypoplastic left heart syndrome.
- Foramen-dependent vices are the vices, which depend on the regulatory impact of the oval window on the process of hemodynamics. The vices of this subgroup include: total anomalous pulmonary venous syndrome hypoplasia of right and left, transposition of the great vessels. These defects require increased size of the oval window to stabilize hemodynamics. This procedure is carried out in some maternity hospitals under the supervision of echocardiography.
- The third subgroup includes only one vice, which is called total infracardial anomalous of pulmonary veins.
2. Flaws with large left-right shunts.This group includes diseases that do not depend on the work of fetal communication, so the first hours and days of life for these infants are not dangerous. But by the first months of life, when there is a drop in pulmonary resistance, there is a critical state, appearing as a pulmonary hypertension or heart failure.