Semen Analysis: Standards and Characteristics
Sperm or semen analysis is a method of research in the laboratory of the ejaculate, in order to determine a man's ability to fertilize. In addition to reproductive function, using semen analysis can diagnose a number of urological diseases.
Among the most significant indicators of semen analysis are: sperm motility and shape, concentration, qualitative, quantitative and morphological parameters of the ejaculate. Indications for the purpose of this analysis can be - a barren marriage (semen analysis is used to determine male factor infertility), male infertility, which is caused by illness prostatitis, infection, trauma, and so on; as a preparatory stage for IVF.
To prepare for the ejaculate analysis must be made within 3-5 days to refrain from sexual activity, alcohol consumption, smoking, use of the sauna and hot tubs reception, and do not take drugs. The most common way to obtain an ejaculate is masturbation. To collect special containers are used or non-lubricated condoms. In the case of impotence, the application of the procedure, called, electroejaculation which is performed under local anesthesia by introducing special electrodes in the anus. It is extremely rare for the collection of material for the analysis by the method of surgery. Fence material can be carried out in the home, if it is possible to deliver the sample to the laboratory within one hour.
Norms and Characteristics
- Time during which the ejaculate liquefies
For its consistency, sperm is not completely liquid, it thickens after exposure to hormones prostate . Therefore it is necessary to determine its viscosity, which normally should not exceed two inches. Liquefaction time 10 to 40 minutes.
- Ejaculate volume - this is one of the most important characteristics, because it is the amount of semen depends on the probability of fertilization. In a normal ejaculate volume is less than 2 ml.
- Color and smell - white-grayish, specific, respectively.
- Consistency - sticky.
- Normal pH of 7.2 to 8.0.
- 1 ml sperm count - 20 to 120 million of them actively moving - more than 25%, slightly more than 50% motile, non-progressive moving - no more than 50%, still - at least 50%, abnormal sperm - not more than 50%.
- Total round cells - no more than five million
- sperm Normal - more than 50 %.
- Leukocytes - from 3 to 5 PZ
Semen Quality is Denoted by Such Terms
- Normospermia - this term means that all indicators ejaculate are normal, semen analysis is positive, and the patient has no urological diseases and capable of fertilization.
- Oligospermia - amount of ejaculate is below normal.
- Oligozoospermia - insufficient sperm count.
- Asthenozoospermia - have low sperm mobility, which can not guarantee fertilization or complicates it.
- Akinozoospermia - sperm do not have mobility, its appearance can be transferred as a consequence of the disease and is the leading cause of male infertility.
- Teratozoospermia - abnormal sperm present in an amount that exceeds the established norms.
- Necrozoospermiya - no live sperm in the ejaculate.
- Leucocytospermia - the number of leukocytes in the ejaculate is too big.
- Azoospermia - completely absent sperm in the ejaculate.
Sperm analysis, once made, is not one hundred percent argument in favor of a diagnosis, since the composition of semen and its quantitative change. Therefore it needs to be done several times at intervals to be recommended by the attending physician.